Four problems in the development of the glass industry
the glass industry is a resource and energy dependent raw material industry in the national economy. At present, China is in the growth stage of transforming from a large glass country to a strong glass country. While the glass industry is developing rapidly, it also faces many problems
first, the production capacity increases rapidly, the production cost rises, and the economic benefits of enterprises decline.
the glass industry generally has a fluctuation cycle of 3-4 years. It is often in a good situation that some enterprises blindly invest and expand, and then fall into a trough. Overcapacity brings industry risks. According to statistics, the production capacity of float glass in China has increased rapidly since 2009. It is preliminarily estimated that about 15 production lines will be put into operation in 2012, with a new capacity of about 63 million weight boxes. Glass has the characteristics of continuous production, and the stable release of production capacity has significantly exceeded the growth of demand from downstream markets such as real estate, automobiles and exports
since the first half of 2010, the prices of raw materials and fuels such as soda ash, coal, heavy oil, natural gas and electricity have risen, as well as the financial costs such as personnel salaries have increased, resulting in the continuous rise in the production costs of glass enterprises. As most of the glass production enterprises produce homogeneous products, some enterprises do not hesitate to reduce prices in order to reduce inventory. The contradiction between supply and demand in the whole glass industry is prominent, and the price remains depressed. Disorderly development has led to intensified industry competition, and disorderly market competition has led to a decline in the profit margin of the whole industry. For example, in 2011, the total profit of Hebei flat glass industry showed a negative growth, with a loss of 495million yuan
second, high energy consumption, heavy pollution, increased pressure on resources and environment
although China's existing flat glass production process has been listed in the "catalogue of demonstration and guidance for the first batch of key new materials" of the Ministry of industry and information technology, which is allowed to be in a single operation step, there is still a large gap with the international level in product quality and energy consumption. For example, the average energy consumption of float glass in China is 7800 kJ/kg, which is 20% higher than the international average of 6500 kJ/kg. At the same time, because the glass furnace with coal and heavy oil as the main fuel accounts for about 90%, it is very easy to cause air pollution in the production process. At present, the major foreign glass production enterprises have many float production lines in China in the form of acquisition, holding, sole proprietorship, joint venture and other forms. Their capacity expansion has exacerbated the domestic energy tension, but also caused a large loss of raw material resources. The glass industry has the trend of accelerating the transfer to the domestic market, which exacerbates the problems of domestic energy consumption and environmental protection, and is extremely detrimental to the sustainable development of the industry
Third, from the perspective of industrial structure, there is a large gap in technical structure, product structure, organizational structure, etc.
firmly focus on the main line of supply side structural reform
although China's flat glass industry has developed rapidly, its technological progress and innovation ability are still insufficient. At present, the energy consumption of China's flat glass industry is far higher than the foreign advanced level, the backward production process capacity is still more than 50 million weight boxes, and the deep processing rate of flat glass is far lower than the world average level. The structure of glass products is unreasonable, and there is a structural gap. The supply of medium and low-grade ordinary float glass exceeds the demand, there are too few high-grade and high-quality float glass production lines, and some special-purpose electronic glass, automotive and architectural glass still need to be imported. The number of glass production enterprises is large, but the scale is small, the production is excessively dispersed, the industry is concentrated, the market cooperation is further strengthened, and the improvement of modified plastics is low. The average scale of float glass production enterprises in China is only 6.83 million weight boxes. In 2005, the industry concentration of the top ten glass enterprise groups was only 45.8%. In 2009, the total production capacity of China's top five glass groups accounted for only about 30% of the country. In contrast, the four major multinational companies, including Asahi nippon, Bantam nippon, Saint Gobain of France and Cardian of the United States, have concentrated 41% of the world's flat glass, 62% of the world's high-quality float glass and more than 50% of the world's deep-processing glass production. Compared with developed countries, China's glass industry has a significant gap in enterprise size and industrial concentration
IV. the export of glass products faces more trade barriers and trade frictions
in recent years, with the continuous expansion of China's flat glass exports, the risk of trade protection is also increasing. In 2010, the Philippines, India, South Africa, Australia, Brazil and Ukraine successively took anti-dumping investigations or safeguard measures against China's flat glass. In March, 2011, South Korea announced that it would extend the period of anti-dumping measures against float flat glass produced by China for three years and continue to impose import tariffs of 12.04% to 36.01%. Brazil held another hearing on the anti-dumping case of colorless flat glass imported from China in August 2011, following the initiation of an anti-dumping investigation on colorless flat glass with a thickness of 2 mm to 19 mm in July 2010. The trade barriers faced by glass exports have increased rapidly, and the rise of international trade protectionism has further worsened the glass export environment. Zhonghua glass () Department
Copyright © 2011 JIN SHI